In a study in which 90% of pregnant women used prescription or prescription drugs, the most commonly used were antiemetics, antacids, antihistamines, analgesics, antibiotics and hypnotics.
In this article we will continue to list some of the most common antibiotics taken in this study and their effects on pregnancy and the child.
Broad spectrum antibiotics, consisting of tetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and minocycline.
Tetracyclines can pass through the placenta and concentrate and store in the bones and teeth of the fetus combining with calcium; the risk period is from mid to late pregnancy.
In children exposed to tetracycline in utero, the teeth may be yellowish and more exposed to cavities, with enamel hypoplasia and a delay in bone growth. Therefore, tetracyclines should be avoided after the first trimester of pregnancy and in children under 8 years of age. In infants, the risk of cerebral pseudotumor syndrome is also increased.
This group includes gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, neomycin, and amikacin. All aminoglycosides are ototoxic and nephrotoxic. Streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin are part of ototoxic drugs (affecting hearing and balance), and they can pass through the placenta and destroy the fetal labyrinth (the inner ear).
However, their effectiveness in treating life-threatening illnesses can outweigh the risks. Chloramphenicol, even when administered to a mother at high doses, does not affect the fetus; yet newborns cannot metabolize it properly, resulting in circulatory collapse (gray baby syndrome).
Although chloramphenicol has a broad spectrum of activity, it must be reserved for severe infections when other antibiotics are not as effective or are more toxic as it can rarely cause aplastic anemia by medullary depression (ie bone marrow does not produce any more).
They include: penicillin G, V, Ospen, moldamine, oxacillin, and broad spectrum penicillins – ampicillin, amoxicillin, augmentin, amoxiclav, Ospamox. Penicillins generally appear to be safe.
They have prolonged action and pass through the placenta; they can move bilirubin from binding sites – if administered before week 34 of pregnancy. The placenta effectively excrets bilirubin, otherwise the newborn may develop jaundice near birth.
This category includes: Cefalexin, Rocephin and is often administered during pregnancy, but studies could not rule out the possibility of any damage; therefore, they should only be used during pregnancy only if they are highly necessary.